In our continuation of celebrating our Freedoms during the month of Independence, today marks the 145th anniversary of the passing of the 14th Amendment which covers the equal rights of citizens under the law.
The Equal Protection Clause required, âeach state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within itsÂ jurisdiction. This clause was the basis for Brown v. Board of EducationÂ (1954), the Supreme Court decision that precipitated the dismantling ofÂ racial segregation, and for many other decisions rejecting irrational or unnecessary discrimination against people belonging to various groups.â
Created as a part of the Reconstruction Amendments, the 14th Amendment was hotly contested, especially in the South. In fact, outside of Tennessee, all of the Southern state legislatures refused to pass it. However;to regain entry to the Union and re-establish representation in Congress, ratifying these Amendments were a must, which eventually led to these state governments being ignored and a military government being imposed.
At issue was the rights of former slaves under the law and it took more than 70 drafts before a compromise could be reached.
Finally, Louisiana and South Carolina agreed to the Amendment and by July 9th, 1868, the 14th Amendment finally became law giving every citizen equality and equal access to the law.
Full text of the Amendment can be found below.
Section 1.Â All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Section 2.Â Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
Section 3.Â No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
Section 4.Â The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
Section 5.Â The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
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